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Dodging Distractors on Foundations of Reading, Part 2

October 25th, 2017 | Comments Off on Dodging Distractors on Foundations of Reading, Part 2 | Certification Prep, Reading Certification, Teacher's Lounge Blog

As you are preparing for the Foundations of Reading test, think back to your coursework on creating assessments. In addition to the open response, the FORT is made up of 100 multiple-choice questions. Understanding the mechanics of a good, critical thinking multiple choice question can help you to choose the best alternative and dodge the distractors.

Test makers often create distractors from what they know to be misconceptions of their testing pool. Consider the following distractors.

  • Guided repeated oral reading is an important part of a balanced literacy program for students who are reading with fluency and automaticity.
  • Confusion between spelling of wait and weight demonstrated the student’s weakness in phonology.
  • The student’s reading “the play started” with the miscue of “the play start” could best be addressed by teaching inflected phonemes such as -ed.
  • The student’s pronunciation of courageous as /ker- ay -gus/ demonstrates a lack of awareness of phonological shift in a derived form.

Do you see any problems? The problem is that the distractors themselves have errors.

  • Guided repeated oral reading is indeed an important part of a balanced literacy program, but not for student who are reading with fluency and automaticity. Once a student has reached fluency, guided repeated oral reading is no longer generally considered to be a best strategy.
  • Phonology is the systematic organization of sounds. It does not include spelling.
  • An inflected ending such as -ed is a morpheme, not a phoneme. The morpheme -ed contains two phonemes: /e/ and /d/.
  • The student who pronounced courageous with a long a sound made the phonological shift from the root form courage to the derived form accurately. The /j/ sound of courageous does not shift from the root form courage.

Multiple-choice questions on the FORT are designed to test your knowledge and critical thinking skills. They will require that you have mastered vocabulary and that you can apply strategies to classroom situations.

One way you can eliminate a distractor from consideration is if it contains an error. Apply all those comprehension strategies that you are teaching your students: monitoring, rereading, metacognition. Search out the traps and avoid them.

Are you looking for additional resources to help you prepare for the Foundations of Reading exam? We have a full-length comprehensive course that provides instruction, practice, and expert support. Best of luck.

Dodging Distractors on Foundations of Reading Exam

October 10th, 2017 | Comments Off on Dodging Distractors on Foundations of Reading Exam | Certification Prep, Reading Certification, Teacher's Lounge Blog

In addition to mastering the content for the Foundations of Reading teacher certification test, you can also be wise to some testing strategies. Multiple choice questions are made of a stem and alternatives. One of the listed alternatives will be the best answer while the others will be distractors.

Here is a tip to help you use the question to find the best answer: Compare the information in the stem to the alternatives. You should be able to eliminate some options with information in the stem. Consider the following:

Lily is a sixth grader who reads grade-level narrative with fluency. Despite receiving a superior rating on her science project on coding, she read a passage on a similar topic hesitantly. She stopped frequently and reread words, phrases, and entire sentences. She performed poorly on comprehension questions over the passage. Based on her profile, which of the following approaches is most likely to help her?

A. Introduction of key vocabulary words
B. Direct instruction on comprehension strategies
C. Instruction on understanding academic language structures
D. Provision of a graphic organizer to map story elements

The exam requires critical thinking. Take the information you’ve been given and draw some conclusions.

Is the problem content vocabulary (A)? Probably not. The stem tells you that Lily got a superior rating on her science project. We can assume that research on the project would provide sufficient background knowledge and vocabulary for grade level informational text.

Is the problem her comprehension strategies (B)? Probably not. Again, the stem tells you that she stops and rereads. Rereading is a valid comprehension strategy. Don’t be tempted to bite here because of her poor performance on comprehension questions. Comprehension problems are often more complex than just use of the usual strategies of rereading, visualizing, and paraphrasing.

Is the problem academic language (C)? Maybe. Academic language is a broad term that includes the language that students need to do well in school. It includes vocabulary, grammar, literary devices, signal words, sentence structure, etc. This could be the problem. We know Lily reads narrative fluently and informational text hesitantly. Don’t assume that because she has the vocabulary she also has the skills to pick up on signal words and interpret complex sentences.

Is the problem with analyzing story elements (D)? No. Story elements are a component of narrative text. Lily’s struggle is with reading informational text.

After comparing all the alternatives with the stem, you can definitely rule out A and D. Given that the question indicates that Lily is using comprehension strategies and gives no indication of her ability to process complex academic language, addressing academic language structure weaknesses is the best approach.

You’ll need to be on guard for irrelevant material in the question stem, but more often than not, the stem provides valuable information you can use to dodge the distractors.

Are you looking for additional resources to help you prepare for the Foundations of Reading exam? We have a full-length comprehensive course that provides instruction and practice. Best of luck.

Top 10 Testing Tips for Math Teacher Certification Exams

September 15th, 2017 | Comments Off on Top 10 Testing Tips for Math Teacher Certification Exams | Certification Prep, Math Certification, Teacher's Lounge Blog

Math Teaching Certification

You must be able to demonstrate mastery of all the content that is on the exam and must be prepared mentally for undertaking the task. After you have developed this deep understanding of the material, you should review these tips for efficiently and accurately getting through your math licensure exams.


10. Read the question carefully
Read every word of the entire question at least once. Most importantly, make sure you know what the problem is asking you to solve.

9. Write your calculations down
You may be great at mental math, but you are in a stressful situation and will do much better if you take the time to write things down. It will save you time if you need to check your work and will save you from making simple mistakes that are bound to happen when performing calculations in your head.

8. Predict before you peek
The test makers have purposely included answer choices designed to confuse you. Do not fall for their traps. Guess the answer before looking at the answer choices.
Estimating the answer first will also help you eliminate some answer choices and may give you an idea of how much work you need to do to solve the problem.

7. Back-solve
The nice thing about multiple-choice problems is that you know that the correct answer is sitting right there staring at you. Your job is just to find it. Well, instead of solving the problem in the traditional way, you can always back-solve. Try each of the answer choices in the original problem and see if it works. I recommend starting with the middle-value answer, and if it ends up being too big, you can eliminate that answer and all the other larger answers. You can follow a similar process if it is too small.

6. Plug-in numbers
Because we are used to math problems with numbers, solving abstract problems can be more challenging. Therefore, you should plug-in numbers. For example, if you have a variable in the question stem and the answer choices, plug in a reasonable value for that variable. For instance, if you had a percent problem where they don’t tell you the cost of the item, a reasonable value to plug in for the item is $100.

5. Eliminate… then guess
If you are running out of time or are unsure of how to approach a problem, you may be inclined to skip a question. If so, you should first make an educated guess on the answer. For example, if it is a word problem, do a quick estimate of the correct answer. You should be able to eliminate a few of the answers without performing any calculations. Then, guess between the remaining answers before moving on.

4. Check your work
Make sure you answered the question. Review your problem-solving notes to ensure there are no mistakes. Try plugging the answer back into original problem or equation to see if it works and makes sense.

3. Use your time wisely
Before your test, figure out how long you should be spending on each problem. Then, stick to it. During your preparations, check to see how well you are sticking to that timing. During the actual exam, remember that no multiple-choice problem is worth more than any other. Therefore, don’t spend so much time on any one problem that there’s not enough time for other problems.

2. Leave no blanks
Confirm the scoring guidelines, but keep in mind that most teacher exams do not have a penalty for guessing. Therefore, make sure to fill in an answer for every problem. You have a chance of guessing correctly, especially if you can eliminate some choices first.

1. Relax before the test
You need to stay sharp for the entire testing window and the best way to accomplish this is to be well rested. Give your brain a break and get a good night’s rest.

Preparing for Content Licensure Tests

July 11th, 2017 | Comments Off on Preparing for Content Licensure Tests | Certification Prep, Teacher's Lounge Blog

“Education is the most powerful weapon which you can use to change the world.” Years after Nelson Mandela made his now famous statement, we find that responsibility for instilling this education now rests largely on the public-school system, and more specifically on the classroom teacher. With such responsibility, it is reasonable to expect that an educator’s knowledge of his subject area would be tested and evaluated.

Content certification exams are mandated in every state. Your bachelor’s or master’s degree is a commendable accomplishment, but it won’t get you a stable teaching job in America’s public-school system. You must pass the required certification exams that are designed to guarantee that teachers have a broad and deep mastery of their subject area.

While most educators are willing to accept that some form of assessment of a teacher’s knowledge of the content area is a rational requirement, preparing for and taking a high-stakes test is a stress-inducing, time-consuming undertaking. After all, a teacher may have completed a thesis last month, but not diagrammed a sentence in ten years. She may be an expert in Asian negotiations but have forgotten the nuances of the Northwest Ordinance. How do you get control of all the knowledge and skills you need to pass?

If a content area certification exam is in your future, you can follow targeted strategies that will have you prepared on test day.

Four Ways to Prepare

  1. Research the requirements. About six months before you expect to take a certification exam, schedule a two-hour block of uninterrupted time to visit your state’s education department website and read up on the specifics of certification tests. If you studied in one state and plan to teach in another, check requirements of both states as well as the possibility of reciprocal certification. Make sure you know which tests are required. Read and process all the test objectives.
  2. Review your course work. Much of a teacher candidate’s course work is focused on instructional methods, educational theories, and practice teaching. However, you should have had some courses on the content knowledge in key subjects. Search out the syllabus, notes, and projects for your content courses. Review vocabulary and skills.
  3. Take a practice test. Set aside another block of time to take a full-length practice test. Your state’s testing provider, education department, or university may have one available. If a practice test is not readily available, check a neighboring state for a practice test in a similar area. Take the test. Score it. (Yes. Score your test. Assign a real number to what you know and don’t know.) Align the questions you missed with the test objectives and determine where you stand.
  4. Use resources to prepare. If your practice test revealed a weakness or gap, you could be at risk for not passing your exam. Be proactive in finding a prep program that will work for you. Here are some options:
    • Self study Prep books and materials are cost effective and self-paced. Look for material designed for a teacher candidate instead of material designed for a student. Resources may be available in your university library or public library, or from one of the big online booksellers.
    • On-site course work You know your learning style and your weaknesses. If you’re at your best in the classroom, look for a prep course designed to create a deep understanding of the material, not one just focused on passing the exam. In a prep class, you get the benefit of expert knowledge, plus the company of other prospective teachers who share your status. Expect that you will need to sit through some instruction on content you have mastered in order to get to the content you need to review.
    • Online review class Similar to a live workshop or prep course, you can also look for an online course to help overcome the intimidation of reviewing volumes of content that you haven’t thought about in years. An online curriculum acknowledges that every teacher candidate is unique. Strengths and weaknesses vary from person to person, and no one wants to waste time focusing on topics that are already familiar. Once an assessment has shown you where you need to focus your efforts, you can select the objectives that apply to your needs. If your online class includes diagnostics, you can track your progress and build confidence.

      A self-paced, online review class is an attractive option because you can target your areas of weakness and scan over the content you’ve mastered. You can take as long as you need and access the course and problems at your convenience. You maximize your time because every minute of study is devoted to prep, not to driving to class or walking across campus.

Strong content knowledge is a teacher’s friend. While acquiring and demonstrating your knowledge is indeed a stringent and rigorous process, your state education department knows that the pain of testing is far less than the pain of stepping into the classroom unprepared. Teaching methods and philosophy are important, of course; but don’t neglect content mastery. Follow proven steps to prepare for certification exams and reap the benefit of simultaneously mastering the content you need to teach with confidence.